Urethroplasty is the repair of an injury or defect within the walls of the urethra. Trauma, iatrogenic injury, and infections are the most common causes of urethral injury/defect requiring repair. Urethroplasty is regarded as the gold standard treatment for urethral strictures and offers better outcomes in terms of recurrence rates than dilatations and urethrotomy. It is probably the only useful modality of treatment for long and complex strictures though recurrence rates are higher for this difficult treatment group.
There are four commonly used types of urethroplasty performed; anastomotic, buccal mucosal onlay graft, scrotal or penile island flap (graft), and Johansen’s urethroplasty.
With an average operating room time of between three and eight hours, urethroplasty is not considered a minor operation. Patients who undergo a shorter duration procedure may have the convenience of returning home that same day (between 20% and 30% en total of urethroplasty patients). Hospital stays of two or three days duration are the average. More complex procedures may require a hospitalization of seven to ten days